What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?

Polycystic ovary Syndrome is an often misunderstood complex hormonal condition affecting 12-20% of reproductive-aged women worldwide and estimated that about 70% go undetected.

PCOS makes it difficult for women to fall pregnant, interferes with menstruation cycles and weight maintenance and often results in elevated levels of insulin or male hormones (known as androgens) produced in their bodies – often producing excess facial or body hair as well as acne flareups as too much insulin is produced; due to too much insulin being produced metabolic and digestive processes may also become affected; for some this condition runs in families while in others it first arises following weight gain.

PCOS may result from an imbalance between GnRH production in part of your brain called hypothalamus and when its production should occur at its proper timing.

Signs and symptoms of PCOS?

PCOS can be difficult to diagnose as its symptoms span across various categories – though you do not necessarily need all of them in order to have been officially classified with PCOS.

  • Irregular menstrual cycle
  • Irregular or infrequent periods
  • Overweight with a high body mass index
  • Excessive growth of facial and body hair or loss of scalp hair
  • Acne on your face and body
  • Mood changes/depression/anxiety
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • High cholesterol level in the blood

Diagnosis of PCOS?

As women living with PCOS may exhibit various symptoms and signs, each woman will likely exhibit different ones based on her individual circumstances. There may also be common patterns among PCOS symptoms which often includes irregular menstruation cycles, weight gain and difficulty getting pregnant (‘The Rotterdam Criteria’). A diagnosis can be made when two out of three of the Rotterdam Criteria criteria have been satisfied for diagnosis of PCOS (‘ The Rotterdam Criteria ‘).

  1. Polycystic ovary on ultrasound
  2. There are high levels of male hormones in the blood. There are symptoms that indicate excess androgen such as excess hair growth and acne.
  3. Abnormalities in the menstrual cycle, such as lack of menstruation, irregular menstruation, and lack of ovulation.

Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome

There are several ways to manage the symptoms and impact of PCOS. It is important to seek help if you are concerned that you may have this condition. Treatment options for women vary depending on the severity of their condition. If you are trying to conceive, it is important to see Dr. Kleiman because this condition can cause ovulation to stop completely or appear irregularly.

Treatment options

  • A healthy lifestyle is one of the most important aspects of successful PCOS management. A complete lifestyle change, both in terms of diet and exercise, is helpful in managing weight and improving emotional health. Losing weight can reduce the severity of some symptoms and will reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
  • Hormonal birth control pills: Dr. Kleiman can prescribe hormonal birth control pills that will help regulate your menstrual cycle. This medication may also reduce menstrual cramps, acne, and excessive hair growth. A number of pills contain a more effective hormonal combination to manage PCOS.
  • Metformin is an insulin-sensitive medication that improves menstrual regularity and ovulation. Metformin is also used to treat insulin resistance and diabetes. Although metformin does not always improve menstrual regularity, it helps reduce hair growth, has a positive effect on cholesterol and insulin levels, and may help with weight loss and prevent weight gain. thereby reducing the risk of diabetes in those at risk. Metformin has been around for over 60 years and is a medication that has few serious side effects.
  • Clomiphene citrate/letrozole If you are trying to get pregnant, you may be prescribed a medicine called clomiphene citrate or an alternative medicine called letrozole. This is used to increase the number of eggs that mature and are released from the ovary.

Long-term risks of polycystic ovary syndrome

PCOS is associated with the following long-term health risks.

  • Insulin resistance
  • Increased risk of developing diabetes
  • Cholesterol and blood fat disorders
  • Cardiovascular illnesses

Early diagnosis is important because it can help manage symptoms and prevent the development of long-term health problems.

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